Full Report for Homeworlds by John Cooper

Full Report for Homeworlds by John Cooper

A complex intergalactic space battle game. No luck, no hidden info, pure strategy.

Generated at 24/05/2021, 21:37 from 1000 logged games.


Representative game (in the sense of being of mean length). Wherever you see the 'representative game' referred to in later sections, this is it!

See the official Looney Labs rules.


Most actions can be taken by clicking and dragging a piece, as follows:

--- Pass --- -- Skip any remaining actions (Pass button is bottom right).
--- Sacrifice Ship Ship Return a ship to the pool. Gain [size] actions of the matching colour.
Green Build Pool System Add a ship of a colour matching a ship in your system (smallest size available).
Red Capture Ship Ship Claim an enemy ship (must have a ship of >= [size] in the system).
Blue Trade Pool Ship Exchange a ship with one of equal size from the pool.
Yellow Travel Ship System Move a ship to another system (start and end stars must all be different sizes).
Yellow Discovery Ship Pool Discover a new system (drag your ship onto the star in the pool you want to discover).
--- Catastrophe Ship Ship Click on any piece of the catastrophe colour in the affected system.
Click on a piece by the side of the board.
Click on a ship in play.
Click on the centre of a star system.

Starfield image by freeimageslive.co.uk - Prawny


General comments:

Play: Combinatorial

Mechanism(s): Territory,Movement,Capture

BGG Stats

BGG EntryHomeworlds
BGG Rating7.55695
BGG Weight3.3636

BGG Ratings and Comments

fogus9.352016 ==== Homeworlds is a very deep combinatorial abstract played with Looney Pyramids. The game is Chess as might be played by Harry Seldon and wow does it burn my mind beyond recognition. At most positions in the game the number of available options is very high. I much prefer the 2p (Binary Homeworlds) game, but the multi-player game is still interesting in its own right, especially the attack-left-defend-right mechanic. Homeworlds is a lifetime game -- I do believe so myself. 2014 ==== The number of moves after the first few often seems staggering. Strategies are often opaque and the game is not always ripe with clarity... but I love it.
mirror339Yeah this game may be a really special one for me. (Own via Pyramid Arcade)
bcurfs10[Last updated on Nov 30, 2020.] The 2-player variant is a combinatorial 4X game with unique mechanics and gameplay. It has a free format, point to point moving mechanic: you discover star systems and move to them. It is also a shared economy game, as you manage the same resources with your opponent, and try to buy him out of the market of one or the other color. It has lots of strategic depth and is a lot of fun to play. Homeworlds is on number 1 in my list of favorite games, beating Go that had been there for more than 40 years. Pros: portable, can be played without any other equipment on a flat surface, many handicapping options, many variants, can be played online at SuperDuperGames (turn based) and in real time (see the links), reminiscent of SciFi (Star Wars, The Matrix). Cons: requires Looney Pyramids (now available from Looney Labs through Pyramid Quartet Homeworlds, a set of 36 pyramids required for 2-person Homeworlds, at MSRP $20), different past rule sets have caused confusion among players (recommended: read my book instead, see below; I am *not* associated with Looney Labs). History. By the end of 2019 I uploaded a 35 pp rule document with a lot of notes, variants and notation for recording (12+ additional pages). In 2020, inspired by the Pyramid Quartet Kickstarter project, I published a book "Play Homeworlds" (3rd edition, 60 pp.) featuring more variants, two sample games, more accurate formulations of rules, and incorporates all the recent rule updates from Looney Labs. And more. The 4th edition (revised, 70 pp.) with even more variants (now more than 14) is available for download under the files section (shareable), or available as softcover from Lulu.com.
ZackStack10My favorite icehouse game and one of my very favorite abstracts (loses by just a hair to Go...) Abstract Space Exploration and Combat. Best played two player as "Binary Homerworlds" (though I enjoy the "sinister" variant with 4 players). Once players get comfortable with how the technologies and movement work this is a fun game of cat and mouse and a suprising amount of "resource managing" the remaining stack of pyramids.
eamo9.4oh man .. this is such an intense brain melter ! ... already participated in 2 / 3 / 4 player matches, and regardless of the numbers involved, this is just an amazingly excellent experience ... and hey .. no dice, no cards, no board (you create you own playing surface) .. luck really plays no part ... think 7 dimensional abstract chess with colourful pyramids ... variants played include 1 v 1 ; Good v Evil (most random, but can be fun); attack all; and attack left, defend right ... but no matter what the format, this game features hard brain cell depletion, and mind searing tabulations, monstrous choices, and hard tactical decisions ... and plays wonderfully well with 2 or with 3 or 4 ... a tremendously deep, complex game that plays out oh so differently every time it hits the table .. a real hard core gem
lambda9An very nice abstract space-themed wargame with surprisingly complex resource management. It makes good use of the Icehouse pieces, using upright pieces as star systems and lying down pieces as ships. As with any abstract strategy game with a large number of options, analysis paralysis can be somewhat of a problem. I've played mostly two-player, so I can't really comment on the multiplayer rules.
attackofmilkN/Aan abstract!
DonGiovanni1406N/AGreat for 2
Flyboy Connor4Abstract that a computer should be great at.
jeep8Binary homeworlds is more fun than multi-player. Then sinister is good. The "mafia" aspect of the stock multi-player game sounds more interesting than it is. It takes us more than the stated 15 minutes though. It's fun to discover new tactics.
ejohnson7N/ASee entry for "Icehouse."
baughmm6Have the Loony Labs custom cards
cerulean8200 years from now, people will still be playing Homeworlds. Trying to learn this? A few games of [gameid=34920] beforehand will help.
ellyssianN/AOne of the pyramid games I'm looking forward to trying...
adambadura92010-06-23 (rating 9): A great game! Very interesting yet simple. Lack of board and simple components are also big advantages when it comes to space requirements. Game itself is challenging especially with more than 2 players.
nycavri9Excellent theme and gameplay, gorgeous to look at, difficult to master. Extreme learning curve. My vastly preferred variant is the 2-player (role free) Binary Homeworlds. [Update] Returned to the game with a bang, playing a head to head game with the Emperor himself, Andy Looney. Despite being thoroughly schooled, I am reminded how much I enjoy this game, how tight the design is. Need to start teaching this again so I have regular opponents.
mundungus6Some very clever mechanisms, but it's hard to find all of the legal moves; my few games usually end with someone (e.g., me) failing to read two moves ahead.
danielaurence10Homeworlds is one of the best abstract strategy games in existence, in my opinion. It has deep and complex strategy, some really unique mechanics, a delightful theme, and best of all, it's highly portable and doesn't require a board, so it can be played pretty much anywhere.
kpetzingN/AIcehouse game
LordBobbio7.75Home-made copy made with craft foam... UPDATE: I made better information design in my home brewed copy than is present with Icehouse / Treehouse pieces. I've tried it with both and still think it's a fantastic game.
master_tactician6A very strange abstract that needs multiple plays to really understand. I'm just not sure that it's worthwhile for me to spend that many plays on it. But I see alot of potential for mastery here. It's a game where there are some moves, either by rule or custom, are just straight-up bad and that's a minefield you walk through in early plays. Getting good at this would probably be satisfying. But I'm not a massive abstract fan.
lariennaN/AWorth exploring it mechanics.
Skotte10cool cool game. i dont get to play this one near often enough
Chuck Singer7Awesome four player abstract. Really worth trying for those you want a mix between TI3 and Chess that plays in less than 30 minutes.
Freitag7I like this game a lot. It's not perfect, but it's a fascinating use of an Icehouse set and really gives you tons of options every turn.
DingusN/AIcehouse Pyramids game
DoughDanDan10A brilliant abstract yet very thematic game.
isearch8A cool ice house strategy game. Be the victor in this epic space battle.
lsamadi9Wow....It took me a long while before I learned to play despite being a pyramid fan forever.Volcano was always my go to game, but Homeworlds is incredible! Deep without being rules-laden. This game is the epitome of elegance. Works well with 2-4.
foksieloy9Only game that still makes me go to sdg.
Malachi6Interesting game. I'm reserving final judgement until I play it again. 5+ plays with 3-5 players icehouse
The Player of Games9Binary Homeworlds as a boxed set. Excellent abstract strategy game using Looney Pyramids. Also included in [thing=187988] [/thing].
javitowildchild7.5A treehouse game. El arte de con muy poco hacer mucho. Un pequeño gran juego
dturnerfish7.5Be warned, this game will melt your brain......over and over
Little WizardN/AIncluded in Pyramid Arcade and in this portable standalone small box.
kataclysm7.5They did a good job of making a great variety of options available on every turn with a very limited selection of game pieces. You can come up with a plan and execute it. I like that.
ALGO7The correct side of pyramid gaming. A set up so abstract that no-one who didn't know the rules couldn't possibly follow a game from the sidelines. An excellent style of game that as the designer says is the real space chess, more than the 3D nonsense in Star Trek
byturn7included in Pyramid Arcade my pick for the best pyramid game. this uses only pyramids while being thematic and having interesting gameplay.
jeffwolfe6So far, all my plays have been Binary Homeworlds, the two player variant. This is one of those games that takes a while to figure out, and I definitely haven't figured it out yet. If it wasn't a pyramid game, I would probably rate it lower and might have given up on it by now.
GeekymikeN/Aneed Icehouse pieces
katjap8Good game with lots of strategy and no randomness/luck. True there's a lot of rules to keep in your head in the beginning, but after a half dozen games or so the mistakes become less frequent.
lulu35N/Aw3.3 b2 (role cachés 3-6j) uses Looney Pyramids
dduhamel17A clever abstract--more open the most, which I think is the reason I find it more enjoyable that most abstracts. Management of the pyramid economy is a wonderful feature and provides a dimension to the conflict rare in most games of this sort. It's not something I'm interested in playing frequently or at a high level but I rather look forward to the occasional pyramid-pushing fun, mistakes and all.
erik2point08SDG games not logged as I only log FTF plays. Thinky good stuff. Worth buying 3 treehouse stashes for by itself. ICEHOUSE
kerred8Its essentially a $30 game (1 Ice Dice + 1 Extra set of pyramids), but this is one out of the many playable games that is all skill, easily accessible, and interesting.
emagius3This is one of the broken but (relatively) fun Treehouse games.
mister lunch7.5From the outset, seems overly complicated with many nuances. Actually, once a couple things iron themselves out during play, it's quite intuitive. Colors match actions, strategy for defense or offense opens itself up, trying to stay one step ahead becomes exciting. An excellent game and one I quite enjoy.
fiddly_bitsN/AI kickstarted the freestanding version (plus some more green Kickstarter pyramids).
MobyNostromo10If more and more people play this, it could be the modern abstract that lives arm-in-arm with Chess and Go.
_The_Inquiry_9Prior to 2020: 4 plays
autumnweave58/5/17: Don't know if we played a variant or not. Some comments are about this being no luck, but the person who instructed us had dice that matched the pyramids, and that definitely affected things. I'd play this again, but only as two player. With three players it felt a little long for what it is.
JonPrud6.95Impressed by how this played 2er. An often tense resource management game. Expect to get this back to the table a few more times. 3er plays well, too. Who is 'winning' can turn on a dime. Do you have to help protect someone because the other player has a win? Always have to be on your guard. Still just learning the subtleties - have not seen the theoretical value of certain positions pay off (banker, fortress) yet.
IkarusN/A#Treehouse Sets
alextfish9Binary Homeworlds is utterly superb. The >2 player version is more variable.
glaurentN/APlayable using 4 Icehouse stashes, playing cards.
mdean10Pretty opaque, somewhat chessy. I don't get this game at all though so I want to play more.
anonfuncN/ALooney Pyramids: Great abstract with a space theme which works well.
UanarchyK9Great game for the right person. I've had mixed results with how much the "Werewolf" element adds in live games, and suggest the two-player variant is by far the best. ICEHOUSE
musicalanarchy4A neat, minimalist game, but a little bit too abstracted for me, it made elements of the game difficult to follow. Check out my full thoughts: https://settleroftheboards.com/always-protect-your-homeworld/
El-ahrairah8A great little (abstract) strategy game with just enough theming to make it interesting. One of the better Icehouse Pieces games.
hippiephysicschickN/Aicehouse plus special cards
Garth M10Just fantastic. Tiny footprint, huge galaxy within, so much to explore and learn. Beautiful. I'd give it 11 if I could. Playing it a bit on SDG, since D has decided it's a bit too chess-like for her. Really rewards repeated plays and building up expertise and skill.
pedropuchalski210The best abstract game. Peroid.
the chandrian9
Rémido10[thing=214172][/thing]: one of the “22 games from another world” playable with [gameid=187988]
EpicViking102020-01-10 Best 4x game every made for 2 player. Compact to go game. High production quality. Nice colors. Fun game. Belongs to my favorite games!
eli_snow10This abstract sandbox is endless in its depth and open-handed in its space for ingenuity and creative play. When transported in a Starship Captain's tin, its portability-to-depth ratio is simply unrivaled.
Umjahwa10Elegant and deep. A true pyramid classic.
braino6Playing this F2F: 6, Playing Online: 8.5
mnv_iii8.5Chess and Sci-fi... who would've thought? Somehow this completely abstract game manages to be extremely themeful, and I love every minute of it. The decision tree is complex and there is a definite learning curve, but I want in!!
Pensator92-4 player game. My favourite Icehouse game. Binary Homeworlds is a 9 for me and normal Homeworlds a 8.
molnar7.5one play, 3-player. Very interesting. Lots to figure out. Maybe bordering on a lifestyle game, but I'll play it anyway. Plus, I like space. (in the 3House booklet)
jhliu6I finally managed to play this with 5 people. It's a tough game, and I'm not sure the Good/Evil thing is balanced, but I did enjoy the way you manage resources to get the pieces you want. It takes a while to teach but it's cool once everyone figures out what's going on.
BeyondMonopoly7Nice little werewolf-style game. Fun.
rosbret10Best. Game. Ever. (With. Zendo.)
spearjr8.5(6 plays) Players will have to play a few games to get their brain wrapped around the various possible interactions. Having the limited number of pyramids and sizes in each color adds depth to the game. Lots of interesting tricks possible. I think 2 player is ho-hum, three is better and I'm suspecting that with 4 or more it will be better yet. With 2-3 player you dispense with the good/evil bit, I think with more players this will improve the game, allowing for some good teamwork and preventing the otherwise inevitable 1 on 1 situation.*Update* I was missing a key rule before. You have to play with the sacrifice actions. I somehow skipped over this. Add in the binary homeworlds rules (reduced pyramids based on players) and the 2 player game is excellent. Lots of chances for cool turns and catching your opponent off-guard.
Darkfate8Perfect blend of abstract strategy and sci-fi.
jody7.5Looney Labs should get their act together and publish this game! It definitely deserves a nice box with illustrated instructions.
orangeblood9Wow, Binary Homeworlds. Highly thematic even though it's a pure abstract and you play it with pyramids. So many options and so much to think about each turn. I'm starting it at a 9, but I can't see my rating going anywhere but up. Owned as part of Pyramid Arcade.
elhnadN/Ahard, superdupergames
wmreed10Challenging abstract strategy game with resource management and direct player conflict as well. More detailed review at [thread=680523][/thread]
wolfkin10don't get to play it often but I love this so much i made a paper version.
mudville96Generally, perfect information two player abstracts are not my thing. This one was interesting enough that I'd like to play it again, with the color powers and the way the stock of available pyramids can be used as a tool. It was interesting, even if the genre isn't really for me.
Megamaniac93House/Playing with Pyramids/ICE-7
Knuckles Eki10Absolutely love it, pure strategy and unique
bhorner10Without many rules, this game has great complexity (it seems to me). The starsystems, the ships, the sizes, the four powers, the sacrifices, and the global stash. A little overwhelming at first, but I think it's amazing. :)
Heyswyndon4I have only played this once, and its variant "Binary Homeworlds" several times, but already prefer the variant. The "Good vs Evil" aspect doesn't do it for me, and makes me see this as a randomizer. I guess my friends are too good at bluffing. Anyway, this is one of the deffinative IceHouse piece games. It's a keeper.
Lemem7While Homeworlds may be a game of intergalactic space domination, I think the economy of the bank is absolutely fascinating and key to success. This seems to be the best implementation of the pyramids that I've encountered as there certainly seems to be a lot of game in this tiny box.
talin48.7By far, this is one of my favorite abstract strategy games.
calculon8Very elegant abstract pyramid-driven space empire game.
Geert VinaskovN/A--. 20min, print&play icehouse
CDRodeffer9Good boardless space chess game! Systems are connected to one another only if they don't share a like-sized star, and there are many interesting combinations for repeated building and exploration. It's a rich game as it is, but with so many different colors of pyramids available, it almost begs for home-brewed expansions.
mxpf10My favorite 2-player modern abstract.
Carthoris8I took an unconscionably long time to get around to playing this game after I had all the needed pyramids. Binary Homeworlds is indeed the true chess of pyramids--an elite strategy abstract with abundant depth.
kevinwho6This game has a lot of neat things going on in it. Each color has it's own special power, all of which seem to me to be equally important, and juggling between them is a fascinating exercise.
maka7Based on one play of the 2-player variant Binary Homeworlds. There seems to be a lot of depth to the game and I think my rating will go up as I play more times and get the hang of the strategy. Love the theme and it goes well with the pyramids.
kuhrusty8When playing with three, we ignore the good/evil business and say the first person to take someone else out wins. Or play "Sinister Homeworlds," where you win by taking out the player on your left.
ira212N/AK: 3. More info here: https://boardgamegeek.com/wiki/page/Icehouse_Pieces#
jcd2001es9Homeworlds is an Icehouse game about the epic struggle between good and evil in space. It is an abstract wargame, in which players build ships, trade ships, explore the galaxy, and attack each other. Resource management and positioning in a topologically, rather than geometrically, connected environment are crucial elements of the strategy. The standard multiplayer game involves bluffing and deduction, in the style of Are You A Werewolf?, although a popular variant, called Sinister (in which each player tries to eliminate the player on his or her left), omits this. Homeworlds is a redeveloped version of IceTraders. Most people consider Homeworlds to be a vast improvement, and prefer this version over its earlier incarnations. http://icehouse.labsk.net
D Beau7.5Quite the mind-bending experience, even relative to other abstracts. Definitely requires some study if you want to stand a chance against one of the skilled opponents at SDG. I'm still a newb, and my games tend to end prematurely. One seemingly minuscule mistake, and I'm on my heels for the rest of the game, with every move I make being used against me. I'll have to see if I can find some expert games to analyze. This is also possibly the most thematic abstract I've ever played. One thing that bothers me is that green is build, and blue is trade, rather than the other way around. That one counter-intuitive design decision has been a source of continual confusion for me.
zeder9card-based version from artscow.
camisdadN/Amake my own project
sikeospi8.2Really neat. The diceless combat would be one of my only complaints.
blueatheart6Decent game, not terribly deep strategy.
crothlisberger7A really interesting abstract, need to play this one more.
bwingrave6Fun to see how the various options work and try to anticipate my opponent's moves. One of my favorite abstracts (along with Through the Desert). Best with 2 -- the one time I tried playing with more than 2, it didn't go well.I have the components for this game, but I don't have it marked as owned, because it's a game that is played entirely with the Icehouse Pieces game system.
JamieRufe10PYRAMID ARCADE My favorite Looney Pyramid game, period. Also, the best Pyramid Arcade game, BY FAR. At first glance, this game doesn't look like much (in fact, it just looks like a pile of plastic pyramids pointing in weird directions), but I would dare say Homeworlds is the best non-classic abstract you've never heard of it...and it's a 4X game to boot! Despite it's simple ruleset, it's actually quite difficult to learn...it takes several games just to wrap your head around the different "levers" in the game and how to move pieces around. Without a doubt, one of the most fascinating aspects of Homeworlds is the game's economy - you're in a constant push-pull battle with your opponent to make sure they're not dominant in any one color. There are so many different things you have to consider, pyramid colors (each color has a different ability), pyramid sizes (strength, number of sacrifice actions) and how to destroy or capture your opponent's homeworld. It's a fascinating game and one that I will certainly and exploring for many years to come.
IguanomanN/AOwn the deluxe board and some of the good/evil cards (3 of each). Looks like one of the deeper games involving Looney Pyramids. Seems like a good one, but I need to play it sometime to be sure.
Glutnix7.9As part of Pyramid Arcade
lookitzpancakes8.5I adore Homeworlds. If you have the correct assortment of Looney Pyramids and haven't given this a shot, you're missing out. They've created a really deep, big, and engaging abstract here. The possibilities with trading ships, moving, discovering new star systems, attacking and defending...there are a dizzying number of options at your disposal and at first it's hard to know what to do. But if you can find a partner willing to wade through a couple "learning" games, the game really opens up and you start seeing things more clearly. Longer playtime, partly because it's so thinky. It's about an hour or longer commitment. Still highly recommended if you're into unusual abstracts with creative rule sets.
captncavern6I don't really enjoy it anymore. At least online... I still might enjoy a face-to-face play from time to time.
kirdirchBoardN/AHøj Weight Kort 15-60min 2player

Kolomogorov Complexity Analysis

Size (bytes)39447
Reference Size10293

Ai Ai calculates the size of the implementation, and compares it to the Ai Ai implementation of the simplest possible game (which just fills the board). Note that this estimate may include some graphics and heuristics code as well as the game logic. See the wikipedia entry for more details.

Playout Complexity Estimate

Playouts per second59006.10 (16.95µs/playout)
Reference Size549631.75 (1.82µs/playout)
Ratio (low is good)9.31

Tavener complexity: the heat generated by playing every possible instance of a game with a perfectly efficient programme. Since this is not possible to calculate, Ai Ai calculates the number of random playouts per second and compares it to the fastest non-trivial Ai Ai game (Connect 4). This ratio gives a practical indication of how complex the game is. Combine this with the computational state space, and you can get an idea of how strong the default (MCTS-based) AI will be.

Playout/Search Speed

LabelIts/sSDNodes/sSDGame lengthSD
Random playout117,7624,2881,034,62537,74493

Random: 10 second warmup for the hotspot compiler. 100 trials of 1000ms each.

Other: 100 playouts, means calculated over the first 5 moves only to avoid distortion due to speedup at end of game.

Mirroring Strategies

Rotation (Half turn) lost each game as expected.
Reflection (X axis) lost each game as expected.
Reflection (Y axis) lost each game as expected.
Copy last move lost each game as expected.

Mirroring strategies attempt to copy the previous move. On first move, they will attempt to play in the centre. If neither of these are possible, they will pick a random move. Each entry represents a different form of copying; direct copy, reflection in either the X or Y axis, half-turn rotation.

Win % By Player (Bias)

1: Player 1 win %37.00±2.94Includes draws = 50%
2: Player 2 win %63.00±3.04Includes draws = 50%
Draw %6.00Percentage of games where all players draw.
Decisive %94.00Percentage of games with a single winner.
Samples1000Quantity of logged games played

Note: that win/loss statistics may vary depending on thinking time (horizon effect, etc.), bad heuristics, bugs, and other factors, so should be taken with a pinch of salt. (Given perfect play, any game of pure skill will always end in the same result.)

Note: Ai Ai differentiates between states where all players draw or win or lose; this is mostly to support cooperative games.

UCT Skill Chains

MatchAIStrong WinsDrawsStrong Losses#GamesStrong Scorep1 Win%Draw%p2 Win%Game Length
1UCT (its=2)62933259570.6282 <= 0.6588 <= 0.688241.590.3158.109.36
3UCT (its=4)62853019340.6444 <= 0.6751 <= 0.704349.890.5449.5713.59
4UCT (its=11)63022028340.7263 <= 0.7566 <= 0.784555.640.2444.1231.85
5UCT (its=30)617281497940.7652 <= 0.7947 <= 0.821454.163.5342.32111.04
6UCT (its=80)601592148740.6908 <= 0.7214 <= 0.750144.056.7549.20185.34
7UCT (its=218)617272569000.6698 <= 0.7006 <= 0.729648.113.0048.89169.07
UCT (its=218)
0.4596 <= 0.4905 <= 0.5215

Search for levels ended: time limit reached.

Level of Play: Strong beats Weak 60% of the time (lower bound with 95% confidence).

Draw%, p1 win% and game length may give some indication of trends as AI strength increases.

1st Player Win Ratios by Playing Strength

This chart shows the win(green)/draw(black)/loss(red) percentages, as UCT play strength increases. Note that for most games, the top playing strength show here will be distinctly below human standard.


Game length118.03 
Branching factor10.33 
Complexity10^110.47Based on game length and branching factor
Computational Complexity10^5.12Saturation reached - accuracy very high.
Samples1000Quantity of logged games played

Computational complexity (where present) is an estimate of the game tree reachable through actual play. For each game in turn, Ai Ai marks the positions reached in a hashtable, then counts the number of new moves added to the table. Once all moves are applied, it treats this sequence as a geometric progression and calculates the sum as n-> infinity.

Move Classification

Distinct actions3351Number of distinct moves (e.g. "e4") regardless of position in game tree
Killer moves44A 'killer' move is selected by the AI more than 50% of the time
Too many killers to list.
Good moves288A good move is selected by the AI more than the average
Bad moves3063A bad move is selected by the AI less than the average
Terrible moves2542A terrible move is never selected by the AI
Too many terrible moves to list.
Response distance0.71Mean distance between move and response; a low value relative to the board size may mean a game is tactical rather than strategic.
Samples1000Quantity of logged games played

Board Coverage

A mean of 10.75% of board locations were used per game.

Colour and size show the frequency of visits.

Game Length

Game length frequencies.


Change in Material Per Turn

This chart is based on a single representative* playout, and gives a feel for the change in material over the course of a game. (* Representative in the sense that it is close to the mean length.)


Table: branching factor per turn, based on a single representative* game. (* Representative in the sense that it is close to the mean game length.)

Action Types per Turn

This chart is based on a single representative* game, and gives a feel for the types of moves available throughout that game. (* Representative in the sense that it is close to the mean game length.)

Red: removal, Black: move, Blue: Add, Grey: pass, Purple: swap sides, Brown: other.


+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Red2) c1,+Star(Red2) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Red3) c1,+Star(Red3) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Yellow1) c1,+Star(Yellow1) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Yellow2) c1,+Star(Yellow2) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Yellow3) c1,+Star(Yellow3) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Blue1) c1,+Star(Blue1) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Blue2) c1,+Star(Blue2) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Blue3) c1,+Star(Blue3) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1
+Ship(Red3) c1,+Star(Yellow2) c1,+Star(Blue1) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue2) c4,[BLUE/TRADE] Ship(Red3)@c1->Green3,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass
+Ship(Red3) c1,+Star(Blue1) c1,+Star(Yellow2) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue2) c4,[BLUE/TRADE] Ship(Red3)@c1->Green3,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Red2) c1,+Star(Red2) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass
+Ship(Green3) c1,+Star(Red3) c1,+Star(Red3) c1,+Ship(Red3) c4,+Star(Green3) c4,+Star(Blue1) c4,Pass,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Green1) c1,[GREEN/BUILD] Ship(Red1) c4,Pass

Opening Heatmap

Colour shows the success ratio of this play over the first 10moves; black < red < yellow < white.

Size shows the frequency this move is played.

Unique Positions Reachable at Depth


Note: most games do not take board rotation and reflection into consideration.
Multi-part turns could be treated as the same or different depth depending on the implementation.
Counts to depth N include all moves reachable at lower depths.
Inaccuracies may also exist due to hash collisions, but Ai Ai uses 64-bit hashes so these will be a very small fraction of a percentage point.

Shortest Game(s)


223806 solutions found at depth 7.



Player 1 to win in 10 moves

Player 1 to win in 7 moves

Player 1 to win in 6 moves

Player 1 to win in 6 moves

Player 2 to win in 8 moves

Player 2 to win in 4 moves

Player 2 to win in 3 moves

Player 2 to win in 4 moves

Weak puzzle selection criteria are in place; the first move may not be unique.